Implantable Technology: History, Controversies, and Social Implications

Publication/Creation Date
November 30 2018
Robert Sobot (creator)
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA (contributor)
Johannes Müller (contributor)
Alim Louis Benabid (contributor)
Media Type
Journal Article
Persuasive Intent
The miniaturization and development of biomedical implantable devices parallels development in science and engineering, more specifically in the fields of microelectronics and IC technologies, robotics, and power sources and energy harvesting. Early historical reviews on implantable devices [2] are recently updated by a number of excellent and comprehensive technical reviews that show the state-of-the-art [3]-[6], and in popular books [7]. However, the objective of this paper is to contribute by reviewing historical background and some of the key developments that enabled modern implants, but within the social and cultural context. Thus, a rather wider range of references, not all strictly technical, will be used and included in this review. To illustrate the current state-of-the-art, Figure 1 shows a map of the human body, pointing out some of the most common areas targeted by modern implantable technology, either already in the clinical use or still in the research stage.
HCI Platform
Location on Body
Entire Body, Brain
Marketing Keywords
IEEE, Star Trek, The Borg

Date archived
January 7 2019
Last edited
June 14 2019
How to cite this entry
Robert Sobot. (November 30 2018). "Implantable Technology: History, Controversies, and Social Implications". IEEE: Technology and Society. IEEE Technology and Society. Fabric of Digital Life.